Infertility in women is conventionally defined as failure to conceive despite regular sexual intercourse for a year, without using any contraceptive. Men produce sperms throughout their reproductive years. However, women are born with a specified number of eggs, whose number reduces with age. Infertility in women is not necessarily related to any abnormalities in the reproductive organs. It might occur from emotional problems, stress or as medicinal side effects, which can be easily treated.
Causes of Infertility
Polycystic ovary syndrome is often responsible for infertility in women. The rise in the level of androgen, which is primarily a male hormone, causes infertility, irregular menstrual periods and appearance of facial hairs. Ovarian cyst, which could not be cured with medicines, should be removed surgically to prevent infertility. Early menopause caused by certain infectious diseases, such as mumps, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, leads to infertility.
Endometrial tissues form the lining of the uterus. If a part of these tissues grows outside the uterus, it blocks the passage of the egg, resulting in infertility.
Luteal Phase Defect
If the ovum fails to lodge in the endometrium, a condition known as Luteal Phase defect, frequent miscarriages might lead to infertility.
Abnormal hormone level
Hypothyroidism, which increases secretion of prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormones, may be responsible for infertility. Deficiencies in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, caused by hypopituitarism or failure of the pituitary gland, can stop menstruation, causing infertility.
Pelvic Inflammatory disease and sexually transmitted diseases
Pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia, can damage the reproductive organs. Blockage and scarring of the fallopian tube hinders fertilization and results in infertility.
Some studies have shown that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day can lead to infertility in women. Although, the link between alcoholism and infertility has not been established, but according to a study, the chances of conceiving declined with increase in consumption of alcohol. Eating disorders and obesity can also lead to infertility in women.