Chemical pregnancy
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A chemical pregnancy happens when a fertilized ovum does not implant onto the uterine walls.  If a pregnancy test is carried out just at the right time it will be positive, nevertheless, when a repeat test is taken some days later that would be negative.  Human reproduction looks to be a very complicated process and every woman is born with millions of ovum and each man can produce trillions of sperm during their lifetime. Most are never even used and even when the conditions are right for pregnancy as sperm meeting an ovum, many things might go wrong.

The ovum could be abnormal, the sperm might be not normal or the combination turns to be abnormal. In any of those cases, the fertilized ovum fails to grow in a proper manner. A chemical pregnancy will leave the couple to cope with the difficulties of thinking they were pregnant whereas in reality they might be miscarrying.  Nevertheless, majority of women who got a chemical pregnancy never learn they are pregnant before they miscarry and start what they think is their normal menses.

None of the women really know how common chemical pregnancy is, but some researchers have theorized that as many as 70 per cent of conceptions turn in miscarriage and the true cause of a chemical pregnancy is not known, though, most believe it is because of the abnormal chromosomes within the fetus. These chromosomal irregularities could be due to several factors that includes poor quality sperm or ovum, abnormal cell division of the fetus, and/or genetic abnormality of either mother or father. It is considered that approximately 50 – 60 per cent of first trimester miscarriages are because of some type of chromosomal abnormalities.  Other causes of chemical pregnancies are thought to be related to infections (i.e. Syphilis, Toxoplasmosis Chlamydia, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes or Rubella), abnormal anatomy of the uterus (medically known as Unicornate uterus or Septate uterus), abnormal hormone levels within the mother (such as low progesterone), and systemic illnesses (such as untreated thyroid disease).

Chemical pregnancy is primarily diagnosed when it is confirmed that there is presence of pregnancy through a pregnancy blood test and once a pregnancy has been confirmed, the health care provider will supervise the hCG levels for ensuring that the pregnancy moves along smoothly. If there is a instant decrease in the hCG levels, this might signal a miscarriage and if those levels drop, an ultrasound is likely be performed detecting any signs of life in the uterus. If a chemical pregnancy has happened, no embryo is visible and no heartbeats are be heard.

All in all, the woman with chemical pregnancy will begin having vaginal bleeding shortly after having a positive pregnancy test and the blood tests reveal low hCG levels those are decreasing rather than to increase. There is no specific treatment which is required for a chemical pregnancy and the most important follow-up test ensuring that the women's hCG level has came back to non-detectable levels after a chemical pregnancy treatment. 

There might be no impact on future pregnancies and the most of the women become pregnant and deliver without difficulties. The most difficult aspect of a chemical pregnancy is to cope with the excitement of being pregnant and then the recognition that she is now coping with a miscarriage.  If a couple has had several early miscarriages (2 to 3) there must be a genetic counseling by their health care provider. 

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