Understand what is Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetesmellitus What is Diabetes?

Human body gets its energy from Carbohydrates. This energy is in the form of Glucose present in the digested food. Insulin is the agent which carries this energy (i.e. carbohydrates) throughout the body.

This Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by Pancreas which is housed behind the stomach. When the Pancreas does not produce Insulin or produces it in insufficient quantity or stops responding to the insulin produced, then the cells will not get sufficient carbohydrates.

This is because, without insulin the cells will not accept the Glucose. So, the Glucose instead of getting into cells remains in the blood. This causes high blood sugar. Excess sugar goes out through urine causing excess urine sugar. This change of mechanism is called Diabetes Mellitus.

Types of Diabetes:

There are two types of Diabetes. Type I is found in Children (also called Juvenile Diabetes) or during adolescence. Normally in this type, onset of Diabetes takes place suddenly and in many cases without any symptoms.

This is an acute form of Diabetes. The type II is a slow manifestation of diabetic form and it normally shows enough symptoms. This is a milder form of Diabetes.


Researchers say the causes for Diabetes are not fully known. They say that hereditary is one of the reasons. In type I Diabetes, the immune system is weakened by a virus.

Then another microorganism destroys the cells in the pancreas resulting in insufficient production of insulin. The type II form of Diabetes is because of age, obesity, hereditary factors, etc. Alcoholism, stress, malnutrition are the other causes of Diabetes.


The normal symptoms include frequent urination and extreme hunger. Extreme thirst and sudden weight loss are some of the other symptoms. The symptoms may start suddenly or they may start progressively also.

If the symptoms are left unattended, it may lead to Ketoacidosis which is common in type I diabetes. Symptoms for Ketoacidosis are vomiting, abdominal pain, extreme lethargy, drowsiness, rapid breathing, sweet breath odor, etc. Ketoacidosis has to be attended immediately as otherwise it may lead to coma and it could be fatal also.


Diabetes is a silent killer. Although by itself it may not harm much, it causes serious problems; like heart attack, kidney failure, loss of vision, slow healing of wounds leading to gangrene, etc.

Although there are many drugs, there are no medicines to permanently cure the Diabetes. However, with a proper diet, exercise and a proper lifestyle it will be possible to sail with the disease safely.

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