High blood pressure makes your heart work harder while pumping blood to the body and thereby can harden the arteries and can increase chances of heart failure.If not properly treated, high blood pressure can also lead to heart attack, strokes, peripheral artery disease, widening of the wall of the aorta, etc.
Though the exact causes of hypertension are not known, but several factors and conditions have been pointed out that may cause hypertension like excessive smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, stress, too much salt in diet, kidney disorders, thyroid disorders, old age, etc.
Hypertension can also be hereditary. Also it is common for pregnant women to have high blood pressure. Women taking regular birth control pills can develop high blood pressure.Hypertension can also be greatly influenced by the lifestyle you lead. Complete lack of physical activity or exercise can also lead to hypertension.
High blood pressure can be controlled though by losing weight if you are obese, reducing sodium consumption, alcohol consumption etc. but mostly you may have to take medication in case you have high blood pressure. In fact in a lot of cases doctors have to prescribe more than one medication in order to keep blood pressure under control. And these drugs can cause some side effects like dizziness, nausea, vomiting,and headache.
There are various medications available and they are categorized into different classes like Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers,Calcium-channel blockers, Diuretics (‘water tablets’),
Beta-blockers. Each class has its own side-effects.Though most people do not experience any side-effects from these drugs, but some mild side-effects may occur as below:
(1) ACE inhibitors may cause irritating cough
(2) Angiotensin Receptor Blockers may cause dizziness
(3) Calcium-channel blockers may cause dizziness, swollen ankles, constipation
(4) Diuretics can worsen gout if you are already having it or it can also develop gout
(5) Beta-blockers can affect sleep and can cause tiredness.Some can also develop impotency.
If you think you suffer from any side-effects due to medication, you should consult your doctor immediately. A change of drug as advised by your doctor can help.
Generally drugs meant for lowering high blood pressure have to be continued for life but that will depend on your health progress as monitored by your doctor. In some cases medication may have to be stopped on reaching target result.