Know about Ayurveda
The basic concept of Ashtaang samgraha and Ashtaang hridya are based upon the Charka and sushrut samhita. The development of bhaishajya kalpana as seen in Ashtaang hridya is clearly distinguished when we compare the preparation found in Ashtaang samgraha with Ashtaang hridya.
At the time of Ashtaang samgraha the basic processing methods and preparation were the same as described in charka and sushrut. But we can clearly observe that the medicines and food-based preparation were gradually separating from one another as. A major variety of food-based preparations were eliminated like. Ayaskrita, yushrasa, poop, puplika, are not found in Ashtaang sangraha and while convey up to Asthaang hridya aahar kalpana is found to be present in save forms of peya, yavagoo yush, maansrasa, veshvaar.
A remarkable feature of Ashtaang sangraha is that the variety of liquor is very less and only B type of alcoholic preparations are there as compared with 17 types of sushrut and Charka. Ashtaang sangraha also point out the development of kingdoms as various types of preparations are described there in; that are to be used for king and ministerial staffs. A very unique concept of vishkanya is seen in Ashtaang sangraha: - This is a specific for point out Ashtaang sangraha and the time when it was written. The same description in various historical references point in the direction that
It could be formed in 3 rd to 6 th century B.C. As in Kautilya Arthasastra the concept of Vishkanya is described in short manner. The ashtaang samgraha was written prior to ashtaang hridya. The ashtaang hridya is revised version of Ashtaang Samgraha and written in prose style.
The bhaishajya kalpana from Ashtaang hridya are much different from Ashtaang sangraha. The developmental aspect of Bhaishajya kalpana is easily portrayed by the word "Agad". The Agad preparation is described in Ashtaang hridya as antidote to poison. The literary meaning of Agad is "drug removing gada" gada means poison and disease. The use of antidote for poison as medicine barely indicates that the knowledge of poisons and other complex were growing. See history of .
The more stabilized form of preparations is seen, as vati is included for the first time in Ashtaang hridya.
Above all the use of bhasma in both Ashtaang Samgraha & Ashtaang hridya gives us a clear indication of that the complicated methods of calcinations process of ores and minerals were used for the first time in Ayurveda at that time period.
Perhaps this was due to gradual degradation of shalya (surgery) chikitsa as that was meant to be asuri chikitsa (treating by devils method as it involves blood oozing, cuts and wounds etc.). As in ashtaang hridya the achaar chikitsa in well stressed upon as that of charka in prior times.
Thus from charka to vagbhatt the bhaishajya kalpana developed to diversity and specialty treatment and therapeutics were seen, but not very clearly observed. In Ashtaang hridya there is a clear ideology of adding much sustainability to preparation is observed. Now after a comparative analysis of bhaishajya kalpana from Brihatta tryee and other ayurveda text we can point out to classify Bhaishajya kalpana in following three segments: -
(i) B.C. Era and Bhaishajya kalpana.
(ii) Ayurveda & Bhaishajya Kalpana after Christ up to 18th century and
(iii) Modern & Bhaishajya Kalpana.
Again when we describe Ayurveda & Bhaishjya Kalpana before Christ Era apart from Brihatta tryee there is a specific type of segment in Bhaishajya kalpana was developing. This segment was the rasa paddhati. The main role in the development of Rasashastra was the degradation of surgery. There are specific textbooks written on Rasshastra.
This is specialty segment of Ayurveda and bhaishajya kalpana, which flourished at coast of surgery. Ashtaang samgraha stated about bhasma kalpana, but the parad kalpana and other herbo-mineral complexes are not seen. But as observed the "Kshaar kalpana" in noticed in Ashtaang hridya and the Rasratna Samuchaya describes about the "Kshaar panchak" and "Kshaar traya". Therefore it can be assumed that when at that time rasashastra was quite developing or initial stage. Thus there are not clear indications about the development of Bhaishajya Kalpana in context of Rasashastra. Now,
(ii) After Christ Ayurveda and Bhaishajya kalpana.
The documented evidence for the Brihatta tryee and Rasashastra are scattered seen and found after Christ. Thus the Ayurveda in second phase of development has combined effect of Rashastra and Brihatta tryee on Bhaishajya kalpana.
The texts related with Rasashastra are Rasarnavam, Rasendrasaar samgraha, Rastratna Sammuchay, and more. Actually the basic of Bhaishajya kalpana has got two bases one from that of herbal based.
And second that of the Pharmaceutics and medicines that are prepared from ‘‘Rasa’’(mineral based). Thus after analyzing the Brihatta tryee up to Chakradutta combining Nighantus and other texts the herbal part of Bhaishjya kalpana is observed.
Now it comes to the mineral complexes or mineral based preparation of bhashajya kalpana. The documented versions of Rashastra based text are ranging from Nagarjuna up to Abhinava gupta. The first drug and medicine manual of medicine i.e. Sharangdhar Samhita contained in it the processed mercuric preparation and first inject able drug (suchika bharan rasa).
This way it is clear that the Bhaishajya Kalpana can be fully understood only after going thoroughly by both sections i.e. herb based & mineral based Bhaishajya KalpanaReferences- Ashtaang hridya by Anantram Sharma published by Chaukhambha Surbharti publication Varanasi India.