Piper nigram
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Botanical Classification


Botanical classification















Piper nigram




Botanical – piperaceae

Ayurvedic –pippali kul

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  • English name – black pepper
  • Hindi name – kali mirch
  • Sanskrit name- marich
  • Gujarati name – mari

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It is found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. It is seen in warm and humid climatic conditions. In India it is found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and some parts of Assam.

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It is a perennial shrub or a creeper. Leaves are 5 to 7 inch long and are present in 2 to 3 pairs. Flowers are small and monoceous. Fruits are round or oval in shape. These are red when raw and become black when it ripes. Seeds are round and its pulp is very hard. The plat flowers in summers and fruits in spring.

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Chemical Constituents


The fruit coat contains piperine which is 5 to 10 %, piperidine 5 %, piprettine and chavicine. These are responsible for the pungent taste that black pepper possesses. It contains certain aromatic oils that are 1 to 2.3 %, minerals 4.4 %, calcium 460 mg/100gm, phosphorus 198 mg/100gm, iron 16.8 mg/100gm, thiamine 0.09 mg/100gm, riboflavin 0.14 mg/100gm, nicotinic acid 1.4 mg/100gm.

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It ia vata and kapha suppressant. Due to its hot potency it is used it suppress pain and inflammation. It also stimulates nervous system for proper functioning. It also helps in regularizing the digestive system as it has light properties and katu rasa. It also helps in suppressing any kind of infection in the body due to its pungent taste. It also helps in cleaning of respiratory tract due to its pungent and sharp nature. It also helps in relieving from skin related ailment. It also helps in controlling the body temperature due to its hot potency.

According to ayurveda it contains

  • Gunna (properties) – tikshan (sharp) and laghu light
  • Rasa (taste) - katu (pungent)
  • Virya (potency) –ushan (hot)

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It is safe for human consumption when taken in normal dosage.

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Plant part used



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  1. Skin related problems
  2. Inflammation
  3. Toothache
  4. Nervine weakness
  5. Indigestion
  6. Loss of appetite
  7. Liver related problems
  8. Abdominal disturbances
  9. Heart related troubles
  10. Rhinitis
  11. Cough
  12. Asthma
  13. Dysurea
  14. Impotency
  15. Erectile dysfunction
  16. Fever

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  1. Oil and paste- it is used on applying on the skin related problems and also helps in relieving from the toothache. It is also used in disorders of oral cavity.
  2. Powder –it is very effective in strengthening the nervous system. It is also very effective in regularizing the digestive tract. It stimulates liver for better functioning. It expels out the extra mucus present in the respiratory tract and cleans it. It works as aphrodisiac agent and also help sin controlling the menstrual disorders. It tones up the heart muscles.

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