Piper longum
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Botanical Classification

 

Botanical classification

kingdom

Plantae

Division

magnoliophyta

Class

magnolipsida

Order

piperales

Family

piperaceae

Genus

Piper

Species

longum

Piper longum

   

Family

 

Botanical – piperaceae

Ayurvedic –pippali kul

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Synonyms

  • English name – long pepper
  • Hindi name – pippal
  • Sanskrit name- pippali
  • Gujarati name – pippal

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Habitat

 

It is found throughout India especially in the warmer places. It is also found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and south Asian regions.

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Morphology

 

It is a creeper that spreads on the ground or may take support of other trees. Leaves are 2 to 3 inch long. The older leaves are dentate, dark in color and heart shaped. The younger leaf is ovate in shape and contains 5 veins on them. Flowers are monoceous and male and female flowers are borne on different plants. Male flower stalk is about 1 to 3 inch long and female flower stalk is ½ to 1 inch long. Fruit is long. When it ripes it attains red color and when it dries it attains black color. It is one inch in diameter. The plant flowers in rains and fruits in early winters.

According to ayurveda it has 4 varieties

  1. Pippali
  2. Gaja pippali
  3. Saheli
  4. Vana pippli

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Chemical Constituents

 

It contains aromatic oil that is about 0.7 %, piperine 4 to 5 % and an alkaloid and pipalartine. Besides this it contains sesamin and piplasterol. The root contains pipperin 0.15 to 0.18 %, pippalartin (0.13 to 0.20 %), pipperleguminin, sterols and glycosides

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Pharmacology

 

It is pitta suppressant nad vata and kapha aggravator. It has a strong erge to suppress any kind of infection occurring in the body due to its pungent taste. It helps in en expelling out the mucus that gets accumulated in the respiratory tract and also the sinuses present in face due to its sharp properties. It also strengthens the nervous system. It is a good digestive agent and helps in improving the gastrointestinal condition and also normalizes the peristaltic movements. It has a great effect on the respiratory tract.

According to ayurveda it contains

  • Gunna (properties) – tikshan (sharp), snigdh (slimy) and laghu light
  • Rasa (taste) - katu (pungent)
  • Virya (potency) –moderate

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Toxicology

 

It is safe for human consumption when taken in normal dosage.

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Plant part used

 

Fruit and root

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Indication

 
  1. Inflammation
  2. Pain
  3. Nervine weakness
  4. Tastelessness
  5. Indigestion
  6. Loss of appetite
  7. Constipation
  8. Pain abdomen
  9. Piles
  10. Liver related problems
  11. Anemia
  12. Heart related problems
  13. Blood disorders
  14. Cough
  15. Asthma
  16. Hiccups
  17. General body weakness
  18. Tuberculosis
  19. Decreased sperm count
  20. Menstrual disturbances
  21. Skin related disorders
  22. Worms

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Uses

 
  1. Oil and paste- it is used in applying on wounds and skin related ailments. It suppresses pain and also reduces inflammation.
  1. Powder –it maintains the normalcy of digestive tract and also helps in maintaining the proper peristaltic movement in the body. It tones up the respiratory tract and also cubs any kind of infection occurring the body. It also helps in toning up of urinary tract. It provides strength to the body.

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