Caesalpinia Sappan
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Botanical Classification

 

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

class

magnoliopsida

Order

fabales

Family

fabeaceae

Genus

Caesalpinia

Species

sappan

   

Family

 


Botanical – Caesalpiniaceae

Ayurvedic – shimby kul

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Other Names

  • English : Sappan wood, Brazil wood
  • Hindi : Patamg, Bakam
  • Kannada : Sappange
  • Malayalam : Cappannam, Sappannam
  • Sanskrit : Patrangah, Patangah,
  • Tamil : Sappamgu, Patamgam
  • Telugu : Bakarucakka

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Habitat

 

Grows wild in mountains and is cultivated in many places as a hedge plant.

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Morphology

 

A small thorny tree, 6-9 mm in height and 15-25 cm in diameter with a few prickly branches; leaves compound, with 8-12 pairs of oblong leaflets and small prickles, leaflets vary, in-equilateral and rounded at the apex; flowers yellow in terminal and axillary panicles; stamens waxy-white, filaments densely woolly at the base, fruits woody pods, sub-compressed with a hard recurved short beak, seeds 3-4. The heartwood which is used in medicine is light yellow when freshly cut, but it quickly changes to red. The color diffuses out easily in hot water. In about 7-10 hours the extract becomes deep orange in color.

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Chemical Constituents

 

The woody part contains brasilin and brasilein and an essential oil consisting of D-a-phellandrene, ocimene, tannin gallic acid and saponin.

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Pharmacology

 

According to ayurveda it contains

  • Gunna (properties) – ruksh (dry)
  • Rasa (taste) – kashaya (astringent), tickta (bitter) and madhur (sweet)
  • Virya (potency) – sheet (cold)

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Toxicology

 

No toxic effect was seen on human body with its consumption.

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Plant part used

 

Extracts

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Indication

 
  1. Wounds
  2. Hemorrhages
  3. Mental disturbances
  4. Convulsions
  5. Fits
  6. Vaginal problems
  7. Urine related problems
  8. Diabetes
  9. Burning sensation
  10. Dysurea
  11. Epistasis

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Uses

 

The heartwood is bitter, astringent, sweet, acrid, refrigerant, vulnerary, depurative, constipating, sedative and haemostatic. It is useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, leprosy, skin diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, epilepsy, convulsions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, diabetes, haemoptysis, hemorrhages, stomatopathy and odontopathy.

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