Typhoid Fever
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Facts About Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is a viral disease caused by a Gram-negative Salmonella enterica serovar typhi bacterium. It is also called Yellow Jack, bilious fever and enteric fever. The bacteria enter the body from the food and drink touched by its carrier. The disease is also spread if the sewage pipe containing the bacteria anyhow enters the pipe supplying washing or drinking water. As typhoid is mainly spread by water, it is a great problem in the disaster areas where there is no proper sewage or water supply. The bacteria after entering the blood stream of a human body multiply rapidly. The virus has its maximum growth if the body temperature of the man is 37 degree Celsius. It is the major problem of the Indian sub continent. South America and Africa are the other places that are also affected by this disease.

Causes of Typhoid Fever

 The researchers have identified typhoid as a bacterial disease. Salmonella typhi that has 107 strains is identified as the main cause of the disease. Salmonella enteritidis paratyphi of the types A, B and C are responsible for causing paratyphoid. Typhoid if compared to paratyphoid has much harmful effects than it.

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever

 Fever of 104 degree Fahrenheit or 40 degree Celsius is the major symptom of typhoid. It is accompanied with other symptoms like non-bloody diarrhea, gastroenteritis and profuse sweating. Rashes of light red colors also appear in some cases. The symptoms of typhoid vary with the stages of the disease. The first stage of typhoid is marked with rise in body temperature accompanied by cough, headache, malaise and bradycardia. Pain in the areas around abdomen and epistax are also visible in some of the cases. In the second stage, the patient becomes completely exhausted with bradycardia and fever that always remain close to 104 degree Fahrenheit. The patient often becomes restless which marks typhoid as nervous fever. In some cases, rashes can be found in abdomen and lower part of chest. Often there are noises from the lungs. Faeces of a person often become green and have a distinct smell. Diarrhea and constipation are also seen in different patients. The patients generally do not have any specific symptoms in the third stage.

Stages of Typhoid Fever

 Typhoid can be divided into three distinct stages. Each stage of typhoid lasts for one week. A patient suffers from lymphocytosis, eosinopenia accompanied by leukopenia in the first stage of typhoid. There is positive result of blood cultures for Paratyphi or Salmonella Typhi. The reaction with diazonium is also positive. The reports of the Widal tests are found to be negative in the first stage. In the second stage the spleen and the liver becomes larger. It also becomes tender increasing liver transaminases. Antibodies named anti H and anti O can be found in the Widal tests of second stage. Several complications are faced by patients in third stage. Congestion in the patches of Peyer causes intestinal hemorrhage that is non-fatal. If a person gets holes in the small intestine then it can become fatal. Symptoms only occur if a person is having septicaemia.

Treatment of Typhoid Fever

 Typhoid in most of the cases can be easily cured with proper medication. Doctors prescribe antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. If proper treatment is not done then it can last till several weeks which in some cases can lead to the death of the patient. A person should be vaccinated before going to a country having typhoid as it reduces the chances of being affected. Vaccines are available as injection and oral doses.

Advice Regarding Typhoid Fever

The bacteria of typhoid fever mainly spread through faeces. Proper hygiene and sanitation are mostly required for preventing the spread of typhoid. As it can enter the body with the food and drinks it is advised to wash hands and utensils properly before eating. Food should be prepared in clean utensils at a healthy place.

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I had rectal bleeding back in October. I was first diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. Then about a month later, my doctor called and said I had Typhoid. He said the antibiotics should clear it up. Now it's January, and I'm having rectal bleeding again. Is this normal? It's not just a spot of blood, it's quite a bit of blood mixed with mucous. I'm started to get a little scared now.
#1 - Sue - 01/10/2010 - 20:02
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