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Retinoblastoma is a disease of eye. It is a tumor in the retina. In this ailment the lining of a person’s eye, sensitive to light. The tumor develops gradually through stages and stops the action of both the RB1 gene. This gene regulates the retinoblastoma protein in eyes.

Treatment Of Retinoblastoma:

Treatment of retinoblastoma is based on the size, position and number of tumors present in the eyes. The primary purpose of the treatment is to get rid of the cancer. Then it aims to preserve the eyesight. As the spread of the tumor cannot be checked completely the doctors can only replace the eyeball that gets affected. It is done to check the spreading of the cancer to other area. Doctors can also use chemotherapy for treating a patient suffering from this cancer. The doctor in some of the cases can also apply radiations from external beam. Enucleation is the only treatment if this disease affects both the eyes. In the preliminary stages retinoblastoma has many similarities to the non-cancerous disease of the retina named Coats. Patient should be completely cured of coats disease prior to enucleation. There are drugs that might decrease the volume of the tumor making them fit for local surgeries. Patients can also loose their eyesight during the treatment.

Local treatments like laser therapy destroy the blood vessels that surround a tumor by using infrared laser. Another local treatment that is available is known as Cryotherapy. In this a cold gas injection is given to the retina’s infected part for reducing the size of the tumor. Thermotherapy is a modern method. Radiotherapy was the earliest local treatment that was available to the people. It uses gamma rays to prevent the growth of cancer but also have numerous disadvantages. It often leaves a chance for another growth of cancer. The families that are having retinoblastoma had been provided genetic counseling. Screening begins after a short period from the birth of the baby. It is practiced for five years with an interval of few months. Ophthalmoscope is used for examination of eye by an eye specialist.

What Causes Retinoblastoma:

The cells that were the cause retinoblastoma were identified in the year 2007. Retinoblastoma can at any age. The children who are below five years mainly suffer from this disease. Gene that is carried from the parents to the offspring is often the cause of this disease. The tumor mainly develops from the abnormally functioning gene named Rb. This gene is not only responsible for retinoblastoma but also for other types of tumor. Any other causes of the disease apart from the genetic problem have been identified properly till the present time.

There are various side effects of the treatment of retinoblastoma that becomes prominent after several years. Side effects generally vary with the treatment.

Types Of Retinoblastoma:

The disease retinoblastoma can be categorized into two types. It can be bilateral or unilateral. In bilateral retinoblastoma a person mainly have tumors in both the eyes. This type of tumor is mainly inherited from the parents. Unilateral retinoblastoma is not inherited from the parents. In this case a person has tumor in an eye only.

Symptoms Of Retinoblastoma:

Patients suffering from retinoblastoma often do not show any symptom. It is identified while screening. If the disease were not inherited genetically then a person would first have a white pupil. This pupil is incapable of reflecting light and is called leucocoria. It can be detected easily in the photograph where the portion would appear white. Some of the children also possess squint. Red eye and pain is the sign of the disease when the tumor has grown to a very large size.

Stages of Retinoblastoma:

Stage in case of retinoblastoma like any other cancer denotes the size of the cancer. It also indicates the area to which it has spread. Identification of the proper stage is very useful for the doctor to treat the patient in a proper way. In the intraocular stage a person may have cancer in one or two eyes but it have not started to spread to other tissue that surrounds the eye. In extraocular stage can had spread in different parts of the body from the eyes. A recurrent stage of cancer means that after treatment the cancer had come to its initial stage.

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