Dandruff (Arunshika )
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Dandruff is undoubtedly one of the most annoying problems faced by people all around the world. The market of shampoos, hair lotions, oils, conditioners and other hair-care products that has developed for the solution of the dandruff problem is indicative of this fact. It also reveals the alarming number of people who are fighting to keep their dandruff at bay.

Today, dandruff is more of a social problem than a medical problem. A person with dandruff is quite likely to feel him or herself down on the social rung. When most of the people are fighting against dandruff today, a large number of them are doing so just because they want to look more acceptable in society, and not because of the medical repercussions that dandruff has. Despite that, it must be remembered that dandruff can cause several fungal and bacterial complications in the scalp, even resulting into complete baldness.

It is very important to know what are causes, symptoms and treatment methods of dandruff, which is easily the most prevalent medical problem in the world today.


Definition of Dandruff (Arunshika)


Dandruff is nothing but the outer layer of dead skin from the scalp that flakes out. This is a very normal human process. As the skin ages its outer layer of cells dies out and it is replaced by newer layers from the bottom. This process occurs regularly in the scalp, just like anywhere else in the body. However, for some reason, if the cells are too many, then the dead skin cells collect together to form flakes. This is when they become clearly visible through the hair. This is the condition which is commonly known as dandruff.

Dandruff is normally associated with the scalp of the head. But this is not true. Besides the scalp, dandruff can also occur on the ears, eyebrows and the forehead.

In Sanskrit, dandruff is called as arunshika or darunaka.

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Causes and Transmission of Dandruff (Arunshika)

The exact cause of dandruff is not known. It is also not known why dandruff occurs more in some people and less in others. But some factors that can trigger the presence of dandruff have been identified since ancient times. The following are some of the factors that can increase dandruff in a person:-

Due to metabolic reasons, in some people, the division of the cells of the skin takes place very rapidly. Due to this, the cells are grown much too quickly on the scalp. The cells die just as soon and need frequent shedding. This shed skin is in the form of clumps, which is nothing but dandruff.

Dandruff could very well be a fungal disease. The virus Malassezea furfur can be responsible for the presence of dandruff. Malassezea furfur is a fungus that lives on the bodies of all human beings. If Malassezea furfur multiplies too rapidly, then due to changes in the natural metabolic cycle, dandruff can occur.

Dandruff can be caused due to hyperactivity of the sebaceous i.e. sweat glands.

Dietary and contact allergies are sometimes responsible to dandruff. Alkaline soaps are most often the culprits. Dust, cobwebs, sunlight, certain fabrics, shampoos, etc. are also responsible.

Some people have skins that are sensitive to seasonal changes. These people are also very vulnerable to dandruff.

Stress is directly related to dandruff. People who live in a constant state of anxiety are prone to dandruff.

People suffering from seborrheic dermatitis, which is a condition of inflamed skin, are also very susceptible to dandruff.

Too much hair conditioning can also affect the scalp. Coloring the hair is a prime culprit. Also on the list are other hair treatments like using hair curlers, perms, hair bonding and other such.

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Symptoms of Dandruff (Arunshika)

The commonest symptom of dandruff is the presence of white or gray oily clumps of dead skin that dot the hair. These are seen more prominently in specific regions of the scalp.

However in some people, there may be other symptoms. The following is a list:-

  • Some people show dry skin, which become more inflamed in the cold dry winter season. Such skin also flakes, but the flakes are smaller and less oily than in normal dandruff conditions.
  • People with seborrheic dermatitis show red tender skin. The inflammation is greasy with white or yellow oily flakes. Seborrheic dermatitis affects regions other than the scalp – the inflammation is seen also on the eyebrows, groin and the armpits.
  • Babies have a very mild crusty kind of scalp inflammation which is called as the cradle cap. These flakes are tiny and not oily. They clear themselves out by the time the baby is a year old.

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Complications of Dandruff (Arunshika)

The basic problem with dandruff is its itchiness. In most people, the itchiness of the dandruff is so severe that they may injure the scalp when scratching. These open areas in the scalp can become entry points for bacterial infections, especially of the streptococcus and the staphylococcus strains.

Some dandruff problems are due to more serious conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and ringworm. This must be checked by a medical supervisor.

People who are at Risk of Dandruff (Arunshika)

Since the exact cause of dandruff is not known yet, it is also difficult to say why some people are more sensitive to it than others. Based on some observations, the following people are assumed to be at a higher risk than others, though there is no medical theory supporting these risk factors.

People who are allergic to certain substances can develop dandruff quite fast.

People who live in the cold dry climates can get dandruff fast. This is because sunlight retards the growth of Malassezea furfur, one of the causative agents of dandruff.

For this same reason, people who wear hats and other headdresses are more prone to dandruff.

People who do not maintain hair hygiene, like regular baths and oiling the hair, suffer more from dandruff than others. At the same time, people who take excessive care of their hair and use too many hair care products are also susceptible to dandruff.

Dandruff is more common in the cities than in the villages. This is due to the stress factor being higher in the urban areas.

Mal-nourished young men and women suffer quite easily from dandruff.

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Prevention and Basic Care during Dandruff (Arunshika)

How to get rid of Dandruff

Dandruff is an inherent condition, and there is nothing you can do that could prevent it completely. All that a person can do is to take adequate care in order to bring the condition under control. At the same time, it must be remembered that hair care must not stop once the dandruff is gone. Dandruff is a highly recurring condition, and so the treatment must be carried on all through the life of the person.

The following are some of the things one can do to keep dandruff under check:-

Have a regular bath, washing the hair with a good quality anti-dandruff shampoo. Rub the shampoo into your scalp and let it be there for about two minutes before washing it off.

How to get rid of Dandruff - After the bath, use coconut oil on your scalp. The oil naturally moisturizes the scalp and retards the flaking of the scalp.

Since dandruff can be caused due to allergy, identify all the allergens in your environment and take steps to eliminate them.

Hair-styling products must be avoided, especially if the products contain alcohols in them. Hair coloring and hair dyeing is totally forbidden for dandruff-infested persons.

How to get rid of Dandruff - Keep brushing your hair regularly, applying pressure on the scalp. This will improve the blood circulation in the scalp and remove the dead flakes.

Keep yourself free from stress. Perform yogic exercises that are beneficial in relieving stress.

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Diet for People with Dandruff (Arunshika)

How to get rid of Dandruff with diet

Diet plays an important role in dandruff. There are both harmful and helpful foods when it comes to combating the dandruff problem. The following are some guidelines:-

Foods that are helpful to dandruff:

  • Whole grains
  • Fresh vegetables
  • Beans
  • Fruits

Foods that are harmful to dandruff:

  • Milk and milk products
  • Sea foods
  • Fatty foods
  • Salt
  • Sugar
  • Citrus fruits
  • All fermented foods containing yeast, such as break and cheese

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Ayurvedic Treatment of Dandruff (Arunshika)

There is a lot of research that Ayurvedic proponents have conducted on the effectiveness of various natural herbs when it comes to dandruff-related problems. The following is a list of the more efficient of these herbs. The methods of their usage and their actions on the human body are explained below.

Ayurvedic Name of the Herb

Biological Name of the Herb

Common English Name of the Herb

Action on the Human Body


Medicago satina


The juice of the alfalfa grass has amazing properties in the treatment of dandruff. If carrot juice is taken in coordination with alfalfa juice, then it is more effective.

Bhaang or Ganja

Cannabis sativa

Indian Hemp

The juice of the Indian Hemp has curative properties with regards to dandruff.


Santalum album


A paste of sandalwood mixed with three parts of lemon juice is prepared in a glass bottle. This mixture is liberally applied on the scalp. This is an age-old Indian remedy to cure dandruff.

Curry patta

Murraya koenigi

Curry leaves

Curry leaves must be liberally used in the diet by people who have dandruff problems. For better results, the leaves are crushed and had with buttermilk. Useful dandruff remedy

Laal Dudhi

Euphorbia hirta


The milky juice of the euphorbia plant is applied on the head. It acts as a hair tonic and helps to combat dandruff an dis one of the useful dandruff remedies


Trigonella foenum graecum


Fenugreek seeds are beneficial in the treatment of dandruff. The seeds are soaked in water overnight. In the morning, their paste is made and is applied on the scalp. This is washed half an hour later with shikakai or soap nut.


Benincasa hipsida

Ash Gourd

The peel and the seeds of the ash gourd plant are boiled in coconut oil. This is applied on the scalp. This oil mixture is effective nourishment for the hair roots.


Rosmarinus officinalis


Rosemary is an important ingredient in several shampoos and soaps. The juice of the rosemary rejuvenates the scalp and deters hair loss. It is also an effective way to cure dandruff.


Salvia officinalis


The sage herb is powdered and blended with hair as a cure for dandruff-related problems.

The following Ayurvedic preparations are highly beneficial in treating Dandruff problems:-

Type of Preparation

Name of Preparation


Khadirarishta, Saaribaadyaasavam


Manjistadi kashaya, Vanga bhasma, Kanta bhasma, Swarna bhasma


Rasayana choorna


Triphala ghrita, Tiktaka ghrita




Gandhaka rasayana


Makardhwaja, Rakta Shodhana

In addition, the following oils provide relief and treat dandruff when applied on the scalp:-

  • Durdurpatraadi tailam
  • Kuntalakanthi tailam
  • Neelibhringadi tailam

It must be borne in mind that while taking any Ayurvedic preparation, the doctor must be consulted first. Most of the herbs do not have any side-effects (and are indeed a regular part of the diet), but some people may be allergic to certain herbs and may show adverse reactions.

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Post Your Comments

Comment Script


use of herbs in the treatment of dandruff seems to be effective.I have used indian hemp hair cream to treat mine it reduced the dandruff on my scalp but the one on my eyebrows still bothers me.what do you think I should do?also your advice for the regular hair and scalp hygiene really helped.thanks
#1 - adaujumolokwu - 06/16/2008 - 08:21
i have dandruff from past 4 years ...i don't know how to get rid of it. I have used many antidandruff shapoos,it is not helping me.
Please advise me..........
#2 - paparao - 08/22/2008 - 08:35
you can try to get peach tree leaves then boil them and pour in hair
#3 - madalyn - 11/22/2008 - 16:46
ive always have dandruff, even i use and anti-dandruff shampoo...it is not helping me so much...my dandruff get more & more... what should i do to get this dandruff.. thats my number problem ...thanks..pls help me
#4 - edie - 01/24/2009 - 07:15
i m suffering from dandruff problem and eventually loosing hair at an alarming rate.pls suggest ways to get rid of dandruff
#5 - anna - 05/18/2009 - 05:53
I have got lot of dandruff on my head and due to this there is more hairfall.I have some cakes like dandruff on my head and also itching.
#6 - Mairaj Wani - 11/28/2009 - 09:01
i have lot of dandruff i used differents shampoo 2 remove it but its like im increasing it dis dars im evening shy 2 make hair style
#7 - girly - 07/19/2010 - 04:37
is any harmone disturbance responsible for dendruff? I ve lot of dedruff and loosing my hair very fastly. plz suggest some treatment....
#8 - Dinesh - 10/18/2010 - 22:20
I am facing problem for my doughter hair scince long time.my doughter when she was six month old, I have cut her hair after the problem arrieses.
Her hair is very week and thin, tomuch fungus & dandruff in her head which fallen down, all over her body, make her scin dry.
I am giving tretment by beatusian; she is charging 1000 ever alternative days since one year, but only little cange has been obsorbed. Her skin is smoothar than before, the hair is less broken.but charge which she is taking, now i can not afford.
Butician demonding honney and egg for making the medician and some medician she is adding and she is charging a big amount. Can you suggest me, what other medicin she is adding? Where i go for treetment.
#9 - shahid siraj - 11/01/2010 - 04:30
I really can't rid of my dandruff, I used many ways on how to remove the dandruff but, its no use!my sister told me to put the hot water into number 2 but its no use too!my cl[@]mate told me too to use a shampoo in the scalp only and even the conditioner.Please help me!
#10 - Patricia Gabriel - 02/02/2011 - 04:37
i have a problem of dandruff since 6 months because of which i lost my hair to please suggest me with the proper treatment............
#11 - Sandeep - 02/24/2011 - 04:24
I had horrible dandruff and excessive itchiness...my Mother told me to shampoo my hair ....rinse then douse vinegar rub scalp for 5 min and rinse do once a week till dandruff is gone and on one day a week apply teatree oil to the scalp with a m[@]age. plus the m[@]age is a stress buster!!!!
#12 - pnina - 03/05/2011 - 06:17
i have dendruff in my head,for tat my hair also falls,i m using so many anti dendruff shampoo,bt it s nt working,pls tel me the solution to remove dendruff
#13 - manoj kumar - 07/02/2011 - 03:18
i also have dandruff. but am not loosing my hair with that. but am not loosing dandruff. what is the perfect solution for dandruff. please suggest me to my mail id : [email protected]
#14 - sathish - 07/05/2011 - 01:17
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#17 - chanel-bags-cheap - 04/11/2012 - 02:17
the dandruff in my hair itches me so much.am also losing hair.please i need help.my email:[email protected]
#18 - sonime hope provide - 07/10/2012 - 06:13
This is a great post.I think it will be very usefull to us. I read it but I need some thing more to know about this. How can I know about this.
#19 - Dry Hair Treatments - 07/10/2012 - 18:51
i have been experiecing dandruff for a ver long time, and i have been losing lots of hair, can you suggest something
#20 - mike - 08/27/2012 - 11:01
i have really bad dandruff and due to this lose more hair than i should....also i have extremely annoying dandruff on my eyebrows which i have to scratch off so i can go to school everyday...please help me
#21 - nat - 10/05/2012 - 20:53
Im a 18 years old college girl and I had Dandruff and rough curly hair problem but now feeling very happy to tell everyone that my problem is solved by getting my HEAD SHAVED only once and my new hairs which grown up after 3 to 4 mnths are much silky and full black and dandruff free.... woooooo
my advise to everyone is not to wast ur money and get ur HEAD SHAVED as soon as u want to get rid of Dandruff....
#22 - Rabia - 12/28/2012 - 01:01
i am a very turbule from my hair fall my problem is frome 6 years but my dandruff is coming after wash.
#23 - jogendra - 12/29/2012 - 13:03
Thanxs boss...
#24 - Mahesh - 05/17/2013 - 22:04
There is lots of dandruff in my head....looks like a.layer of white dendruff....as I remove my all hair I can see. The clean. Layer of dendruff.... I have to remove my hair with razor.bcoz dandruff is such a.head each....plz suggest me any treatment so I can love.my lovely hair......I don't need to remove my hair......
#25 - dhaval - 03/19/2015 - 15:34
Wash ur hair with buttermilk daily before bath,and shampoo clinic plus and oil a little any oil.:)
#26 - gujjar - 11/01/2016 - 08:24
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