Human body contains lots of endocrine glands whose job is to manufacture hormones. One of them is thyroid which is located in the middle portion of the neck. Thyroid gland produces two types of hormones, i.e. T3 and T4 that regulates the metabolism of our body. Normally, T3 is produced in the quantity of ten to thirty microgram and T4 in the quantity of sixty to ninety micrograms respectively.
In a healthy person, the thyroid gland produces T3 and T4 hormones in a balanced quantity whereas in case of imbalance, the quantity of these hormones gets decreased or increased. Because of thyroid disorder, ladies suffer from the problem of natural delay in menstrual periods and infertility.
In human body, it is the thyroid stimulating hormone that controls the level of both the hormones. This thyroid stimulating hormone is one of the hormones originating from pituitary gland.
The imbalance in the quantity of T3 and T4 hormones originating from the thyroid gland is known as thyroid disorder.
In most of the cases, this hormonal problem is hereditary but in several cases it has been found that the deficiency or excess of iodine in the body also causes thyroid. For diagnosing thyroid disorder, the level of TSH, T3 and T4 hormones is checked. Apart from recognizing the symptoms, thyroid profile test is done.
Generally, thyroid disorder is divided into two parts. In thyroid when the level of T3 and T4 hormones decreases, then it is known as hypothyroidism. In this case, level of TSH increases whereas when the level of both the hormones increases and TSH level decreases, then it is a case of hyperthyroidism.
Hypothyroidism can occur due to iodine 131 treatment which is given to the patients of hyperthyroidism which kills thyroid cells. This problem can occur due to radiation therapy given in case of blood and throat cancer, thyroid surgery, hereditary problem or deficiency of thyroid stimulating hormone.
Some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism are loss of appetite but still increase in weight, reduced rate of heart beat, swelling around neck, depression, lassitude gains momentum, gradual dryness of skin, feeling shivery even in hot weather, constipation or hair starts falling more often. In some cases, the hearing capability of a person is affected.