Dash Vidh Pariksha - Ten Folds of Investigation.
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It can happen in many cases that the good physician my sometimes may get misguided and any sometimes think that a certain case is very serious by merely seeing his symptoms. Vice versa condition can also happen. Hence a very careful examination is needed to reaches to a certain conclusion. Maharishi charak insist that a wise physician should investigate the following ten point sequences in order to avoid the mistakes that are very harmful to the patient. These ten points are:

  1. Karnam: it is that which does an act (physician)
  1. Kaaran: it is the instrument or in simple way the which constitute the means for actor, who sets about with a resolution to achieve the action intended i.e. the treatment
  1. Karyayoni: it is that which undergoes a modification i.e. the derangement of doshas.
  1. Karyam: it is the purpose for the achievement of which the actor moves.
  1. Karyaphalam: for attaining the accomplishment it is undertaken.
  1. Anubandh: it is the condition of happiness or misery, resulting from the action which invariably attaches to the actor after the accomplishment of the action
  1. Desh: it is the place of residence and the seat of an action i.e. the patient.
  1. Kala: kala is the time which may be season, year, seconds and minutes, age etc.
  1. Pravritti: it is the exertion put forth for achieving the action
  1. Upayah: it consists of facilities and proper aids available in the form of proper physician, medicine and nurse and a curable disease for treatment and suitable environment for getting the cure.

Now we will understand each investigation elaborately

Karnam- the physician

The physician is the cause. He is the one who performs the examination and then treats up the patient. He performs various methods to maintain the constituency of the body in harmony and homeostasis. The physician should possess the following thing. Clear apprehension of the scriptures, experience gained by actual observation of the treatment, cleverness and skill, purity, both externally and internally, dexterity of hand gained by practice, equipment with all the necessary appliances off treatment, possession of all the organs of knowledge and action.

Kaaran-medical treatment

Karnam is the instrument of the medicine. Medicine serves as an appliance in the hands of the physician, while endeavoring to bring about harmony of dhatu. It is distinguished from all those which have been included in the upayah. This is of two types:

  • Daivauyapaasayam- this rests upon the faith and the power of god
  • Yuktivyapaasrayam- it is that which rest on the observation and the reasoning. It is examined by following methods. Like Nature, potency, region, season dosha involved etc.

Karyayoni- derangement or disease

Karyayoni is the reason for the action or in simple words it is the disease for which we are working. This process is being indicated in the process of normalizing doshas in the body by which abnormality has occurred. Its examination includes the observation of symptoms that are presented during advent of disease. Theses observations are also required to know the curability, mildness and virulence of a disease.

Karyam-equilibrium of dosha

Karyam refers to the homeostasis in the doshas. It is indicated when there is there is elevation in some imbalance in the body known as vikaar in ayurveda. Its examination involves following observation:

  • Disappearance of a disease
  • Accession of Shabda (voice) and aakrity (complexion)
  • Growth and development of the body
  • Increase of strength
  • Desire of having food
  • Digestion of food at proper time
  • No troubles in excretion of urine, stool and semen.
  • No burden and stress on mind

Karyaphalam-resulting happiness

It is the result of attainment of happiness as the persons doshas are in equilibrium. It signifies cheerfulness of mind, intellect, senses and body.

Anubandh - continuity of life

Anubandh is life. Its indication is a continuity of vital breathes or the prana Vayu in general sense. A physician has to access about the result of the treatment, by which the patient has a good chance for leading a healthy and happy life.

Desh- habitat and place of disease

Desh or the place of action. It is a very broad term which can be referred to as country, habitat and even the Body of the person. Amongst these, the examination of the country is for acquiring knowledge of the habits of the patient as also for ascertainment of herbs that grows in the area. It is essential to know that in which region patient is born, brought up or has acquired the disease. It is also very essential to know about the environment in which the herb is grown as it acquires the same properties as that of the soil and the environment of that area. Patient is himself is considered as the desh or the filed on which some problem has occurred. His examination has for its object the ascertainment of the unexhausted period of his life or ascertainment of the measure of his strength and of the faults.

Kala- climate and period of disease

Kala is known as time. It is of two types.

  • Year
  • Age

Amongst these, the year is divided into two or three or six or twelve parts. It has 365 days and each day consists of six periods of four hours.

Kala can also be considered as the day after the onset of the disease.

Pravritti- beginning of treatment

The origination of treatment is called Pravritti. It’s characterized by a combined effort of a physician, attendant (nurse) and the medicine in giving relief to a patient.

Upayah- methods or means

The well-fittedness and adaptation of the physician and all the rest is called as upayah (methods). Its characteristics consist in the administration of medicine, duly furnished with such causes of success as place, time, measure, assimilability and operation or virtue, as also the wealth of those attributes which have been already indicated of the physician and the rest.