Amoebiasis - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
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Introduction

It has been already brought out that people having symptoms causing amebiasis are infected with a special microorganism called Entamoeba histolytica, and those patients who exhibit no symptoms are in reality, infected with almost very-looking amoeba known as Entamoeba dispar. During their life cycles, the amoebas live in two very different classes: the infective cyst or capsule form that is not mobile but can survive outside the human body as it has its protective covering and the disease-developing form, the trophozoite that though capable of to move, cannot survive once passed in the feces and, thus, cannot infect any other individuals.

The lifecycle of amoeba in humans

The condition is most commonly transmitted when a person starts eating food or drinking water that contains E. histolytica cysts from human feces. In the alimentary canal, the cysts get transported to the intestine where the outer layers of the cysts are broken and gets exposed by digestive secretions and thus, there releases the mobile trophozoites. Once secreted within the intestine, the trophozoites start multiplication by feeding on intestinal bacteria or by occupying the lining of the large intestine.

Within the lining of the intestines, the trophozoites release a substance that demolishes intestinal tissues and creates a typical bottle-shaped sore or ulcer. The trophozoites might remain inside the intestines, in the intestinal walls, or may break through the intestinal walls and can travel through the blood into the internal organs such as liver, lungs, brain etc. Trophozoites that stay into the intestinal walls gradually form new cysts that are carried by the digestive tract and finally passed with the feces. Under friendly temperature and humidity considerations, the cysts can live in soils or waters for weeks to months and then again, are capable beginning the cycle again.

Classical definition of amoebiasis

Amoebiasis can be defined as an acute or chronic inflammation that is caused by the parasitic amoeba, Entamebahistolitica. This is generally contracted by water and any prepared foods infected due to poor hygienic condition and that might cause contamination. It is featured by watery diarrhea, bloody stools and feverish conditions.

Causes of Amoebiasis

Amebiasis is solely due to infection of Entamoeba histolytica .

In case, if a person has consume food or drinks water that contain microorganisms.

One of the most common cause is that it spreads from infected person to other by stools or feces. This way, it is transmitted condition.

The condition can also occur due to crowded living condition.

Internal cause for amebiasis is due to spread through the blood to the liver, brain or other vital internal organs.

Symptoms of Aomebiasis

The symptoms are typical. A person infected with such condition has abdominal cramps, nauseating feeling, Fatigue etc. Few of the other symptoms include anorexia (Loss of appetite) and intestinal gas/flatulence or bloating. Typical symptoms of the condition include lose or watery stools, abdominal tenderness or mild pain and indigestion.

Severe symptoms of amoebiasis include:

Entamoeba histolytica spreading to other internal organs that includes the lungs or even the brain producing quite dangerous symptoms.

In some severe cases, passage of liquid stools with streaks of blood can be seen.

The amoebae gain access into the bloodstream and can travel to the liver and can finally form abscess called as liver amoebic abscess.

It can produce profuse vomiting in severe cases.

In some sever cases; the condition might end up in IBS - irritable bowel disease.

Treatment of Amoebiasis

Generally, amebiasis can be treated by antimicrobial medication; however, in severe cases such as amebic liver abscess hospitalization and surgery is required. In asymptomatic intestinal infection remedy, treatment using diloxanide furoate iodoquinol, paromomycin or metronidazol is quite common. In some milder cases, the condition can be treated with various natural herbs such as Emblica officinalis, belerica and Eclipta alba. Neem is also considered to be great disinfectant. One can use pills or decoction of those herbs in order to heal the diseases. Buttermilk is also considered to be good replacement therapy in Ayurveda.

In some more severe cases of amoebic dysentery, the treatment involves supplementation of IV fluids with lots of other medications such as antacids, anti-nauseant and anti-spasmodic; they are either given orally or by injections. In some serious cases, such as hepatic abscess, patient may require typical removal.