Astha Vidh Pariksha (Eight Fold Examination)
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As we know that different methods of examinations were adopted with the different times. These examination methods were designed in such a way that these were very much applicable in leading to the diagnosis of a certain disease. These got modified with the advent of time and the additions of things were done according to the requirements. There have been different methods adopted in different times these are:

  1. Panchalakshana (five fold) nidanam
  2. The investigation of the disease by the logical methods of direct observation, reasoning, interference and acceptance of testimony of reliable authorities known as paramana chatukshaya.
  3. The third method of investigation is by physical examination and interrogation.
  4. The fourth method of investigation a disease, which is known as astasthaana pariksha.

 

 

Astha vidh pariksha

Astasthaana pariksha may be defined as the investigation of a disease by the examination of the following eight categories namely.

Pulse investigation (nadi pariksha)

  1. Purpose of studying Nadi or Pulse
  2. Vata, pitta and kapha pulses
  3. Examine the patient as a whole
  4. Pulse indicating death
  5. Combination of Pulse
  6. Usage of left hand in females
  7. Usage of three fingers in examining the Pulse
  8. Best time for examining the Pulse
  9. Time required for pulse examination
  10. Method of examining the Pulse
  11. Variation of Pulse

Urine investigation (mutra pariksha)

  1. Quantity
  2. Urine sample
  3. Colour
  4. Consistency and Density
  5. Odor
  6. Character of deposits
  7. Prahmeh
  8. Oil test for urine
  9. Method of examination

Faeces examination (mal pariksha)

Tongue examination (jihva pariksha)

  1. Vata Dominance
  2. Pitta Dominance
  3. Kapha Dominance
  4. Sannipaata (vata, pitta and kapha)
  5. Variation in sense of taste

Sound examination (sabda pariksha)

Touch examination (sparsha pariksha)

Appearance (aakrity)

The above eight items of the investigation appear to be adopted by many of the present practitioner of ayurvedic system of medicine. Some also includes Danta (teeth examination) and nakha examination (nails examination).in the list of eight categories instead of the eyes and appearance.

The mentioning of ashth vidh pariksha does not exist in charak samhita, sushurut samhita, or ashtang samhita. Maharishi sharanghdhar first mentioned about the nadi pariksha (pulse examination) but he mentions nothing about ashth vidh pariksha. The creators of yogratnakar and lolambarajeeya gave a detailed description of these eight fold investigation techniques. This method is inspired from yoga and siddha system of medicine which is prevalent in southern parts of India.